Total station is a digital surveying instrument which has numbers of function such as, determination of elevation, horizontal distance and location of 3dcoordinates. Mar 5, 2014 definition of total station total station is surveying instrument that combines the angle measuring capabilities of a theodolite with an edm capability into a single tool. This application allows you to complete all of the above steps more efficiently and conveniently, and is the easiest way to stake out profile boards. Modern surveying instruments provides faster and more precise surveying than conventional instruments. Software with familiar apps and easytouse touch technology. Learning modern surveying instruments total station youtube. Cd the tripod head is approximately level, and over the surveying point. Here in we have gathered some pdf lectures on surveying.
Feb 28, 2017 total station is one of the most used modern instrument in land surveying. The weapon for engineering how to set up total station, by 20 year old guy with a topocon model and data collector. Robotic total stations allow the operator to control the instrument from a distance via remote control. About 0% of these are tape measures, % are prisms, and 6% are theodolites. This report discusses the use of the sokkisha set2 electronic total station for topographic surveying. Total station in surveying operation, uses and advantages. We hope students all over the world will find it helpful. It is an electronic transit theodolite integrated with electronic distance measurement edm to measure both vertical and horizontal angles and the slope distance from the instrument to a particular point, and an onboard computer to collect data and perform. The instrument can be used to measure horizontal and vertical angles as well as sloping distance of object to the instrument. Equipment inventory control, repair, adjustment, and maintenance is covered in chapter 3, survey. Total stations for surveying, construction, and mapping. Total station surveying equipment and instrument tiger.
Limits of survey total station total stations represent a different problem. Total station system tss survey specification highway surveying manual page 93 january 2005 total station system tss survey specification 903. Total station measurements and their precision and. Total station is a surveying equipment combination of electromagnetic distance measuring instrument and electronic theodolite. A total station is used to record the absolute location of the tunnel walls, ceilings backs, and floors as the drifts of an underground mine are driven.
Heights and distance using principles of tacheometric surveying two exercises 5. It is an imperative requirement in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Because of the trigonometric calculations utilized in total station reductions, elevations are not as accurately obtained using these instruments. General handling precautions before starting work or operation, be sure to check that the instrument is. Elhallaq lecturer of surveying the islamic university of gaza introduction. Determination of remote height using total station.
Permanent adjustment of transit theodolite, methods of repetitions and reiterations. Total station surveying equipment and instrument tiger supplies. The nikon xf mechanical total station is packed with new features that make survey work easier and faster, including an 800m range nonprism edm, timesaving autofocus and dual full displays. The distance is computed based on the velocity of the radio waves. Satellite station eccentric station also, signals are frequently blown out of position,andanglesreadonthemhavetobe corrected to the true position of the triangulationstation. Therefore, for elevation critical data, total station measurements should not exceed 600 feet from the instrument. It is also used by archaeologists to record excavations as well as by police, crime scene investigators, private accident reconstructionists and insurance companies to take measurements of scenes. Selflearning survey grade total station for all conditions.
Total station the total station is an improvised version of modern surveying instruments such as edmi, auto level and digital level. Surveying total stations leica builder leica flexline. A total station ts or total station theodolite tst is an electronicoptical instrument used for surveying and building construction. Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment for so many centuries. It is also integrated with microprocessor, electronic data collector and storage system. What are the differences between theodolite and total station. The surveying process is a procedural one and, by following these instructions, you should be able to survey an entire stage from beginning to end. Oct 06, 2016 the total station is an instrument through which we can able to measure the horizontal and vertical distance, angles between points located on ground. Total station accessories we stock and supply an extensive range of leica total station accessories to compliment your leica instrument. Mount the battery in the instrument before performing this operation.
Total station is a combination of an electronic theodolite and an electronic distance meter edm. The data collected by a total station can be transferred through a usb port into the computer where it can be viewed and analysed easily. Topographic surveying using the sokkisha set2 electronic total station with the nec mobile pro 780 computer by lisa a. Hot sale dtm102nl,dtm624r total station surveying instrument total station price. Introduction to total station the main instrument for surveyors on site today is the total station.
Introduction until recently, transits and theodoliteswere the most commonly used surveying instruments for angle measurements for angle measurement. The remote instrument interprets the signals and sends them back to the master unit, which measures the time required for the radio waves to make the round trip. When the instrument is not set up over the truestation,and 2. Surveying with gps, total station and terresterial. A wide variety of types of total station options are available to you. Chapter 9 total station system tss survey specification. Note these are the coordinates for the imaginary station that was created earlier. Define the advantage and disadvantage of total station surveying define the vertical and horizontal angle measurement mechanism of total station instrument. The leica flexline total station range produces the best results in the modern construction and surveying environment. Traditionally they are manual instruments that come in two types transit, which rotates in a full circle in the. Their types and uses are discussed in this article. Theodolite and total station, as only civil engineers or students would know, are land surveying instruments used to deduce information about the plot under consideration for construction buildings, bridges, roads, highways, dams, etc. A total station is a combination of an electronic theodolite, an electronic distance measuring device edm. In conventional surveying, chain and tape are used for making linear measurements while compass and ordinary theodolites are used for making angular measurements.
Thank you for purchasing the topcon electronic total station, gts230w series. Theodolite survey application in height and distance measurements. Total station south nts342r6a edm trigger key south. Cv the tripod shoes are firmly fixed in the ground. Just choose the features you are looking for below and start shopping. Modern surveying instruments and their uses in civil. Total station tacheometer laser and surveying instruments mail. Total station instrument survey and construction on sales. Total station setup and operation university of south. The first complete mobile mapping solution from a single provider, including software for the capture, postprocessing, and storing of the gathered data. Total station is usually operated by a surveyor assisted by a laborer or geodesist who carries the target pole to the points of detail to be surveye. Total station is very much precise instrument because, it uses laser beam technology. This is much more accurate than a gps or any type of base station. With the nikon xf, fieldwork is always accurate and efficient thanks to proven workflows and an array of features.
Instruments should only be checked under favorable conditions. Total station surveying instrument surveying, station. It can be done by means of plumb bob suspended from a small hook attached to the vertical axis of the theodolite. The total station is an electronic theodolite transit integrated with. The latest production of total stations utilises the most modern technology and makes use of hardware and software options to be selected to produce the required performance. Surveying with gps, total station and terresterial laser. Geological survey editorial standards or with the north american stratigraphic code. Total station tacheometer laser and surveying instruments. You can download it as a pdf file from our website at en downloads. The integration provides the ability to measure horizontal and vertical angles as well as slope distances using the same device at the same time, which benefits the surveyor in terms of portability, convenience and speed. Instead of direct leveling method, indirect leveling method using total station is applied in this research to assure the technicians in performing the tests, it is more economical as well.
The results are expected to be used for many public works including routine survey, wide residential land development and subsidence measuring instruments. Total station setup and operation university of south alabama. Total station and its applications in surveying gis resources. Survey and total station instructions lightcraft technology. Surveying is a science as well as an art, by which studies are made of the objects present on the ground and below the ground at different points. A total station is an electronicoptical instrument used in modern surveying. These two devices were fundamentally equivalent and could accomplish basically the same task. A total station is a modern surveying instrument that integrates an electronic theodolite with an electronic distance meter. Surveying equipment and surveying instruments seco. Enter the coordinates of a in new point window as below. Most total stations can measure distance with an accuracy of about 1. Level the instrument on the desired starting survey marker. These methods are total station ts, global positioning system gps, and terrestrial laser scaner tls. Lecturer, senior technical assistant department of mining engineering, indian school of mines, dhanbad 826004 abstract although surveying techniques have always played a primary role in.
From then on all point measurements will be set according to utm. Total stations surveying instruments total station. The linear measurements and angular measurements are measured with the aid. But like any other instrument, it all depends on how well the user operates it. The theodolite is a complex instrument used mainly for accurate measurement of horizontal and vertical angle up to 10 or 20 depending upon the least count of the instrument. When using total stations to measure precise elevations, the adjustment of the electronic tilt sensor and the reticule of the telescope becomes very important. Total station is one of the most used modern instrument in land surveying. You may have to level the total station first as shown on screen below. Total station,surveying and mapping instrument manufacturer. Centering means setting the theodolite exactly over an instrument station so that its vertical axis lies immediately above the station mark. You can depend on geofennel surveying instruments to provide precise, reliable results under. Total station on the other hand, is a multipurpose surveying instrument based on electronic distance measurement edm.
The total station is an electronic theodolite transit integrated with an electronic distance meter edm to read slope distances from the instrument to a particular point. May 30, 2017 surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or threedimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. Surveying is a very important part of civil engineering. A total station is an angle measuring device, also known as a theodolite, integrated with an electronic distance measurement edm unit. Lumberlike products with a plastic content of 50 percent or more are referred to as plastic lumber. In most cases, only one instrument setup is required. Only prism mode, the reflectorless mode not available. They can measure distance, angles, elevations with a high level of precision. Introduction, electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic distance measurement, total station, digital selfleveling levels, scanners for topographical survey. Lecture 30 modern surveying instrument total station. Total station 2016 surveying electromagnetic radiation.
We are total station manufacturer in china, has successfully developed optical theodolite, water level, plumb aligner, ranger finder, electronic theodolite, total station, gps receiver and other products of diverse types and accuracy grades. The surveyor will locate the total station accurately over each traverse station in turn and will measure the horizontal angles as indicated in figure 6 below. Bahuguna, dheeraj kumar, sunil kumar associate professor, sr. Because of its various uses, the theodolite is sometimes known as universal instrument. In the field, make adjustments only when the instrument results are poor or require excessive manipulation. Among other information, the manual contains basic instructions for operation of the instrument and describes recommended servicing and adjusting methods. Topographic surveying using the sokkisha set2 electronic. To set up the total station so that it operates in decimal degrees. Instrument errors 22 inspecting the line of sight 22 inspecting the edm of the total station 23 instrument errors in the total station 24 simple surveying tasks 26 aligning from the midpoint 26 measuring slopes 27 measuring rightangles 28 applications programs 29 calculating areas 29 staking out 30 remote heights 31 tie distances 32 free.
For the best performance of the instruments, please carefully read these instructions and keep them in a convenient location for future reference. Selflevelling instruments are the preferred instrument on building sites, construction and surveying due to ease of use and rapid setup time this more modern type of level is now in general use. Surveying is the most important, oldest practice carried out, which includes, taking of measurements on, below or above the surface of the ground and to plan the course of further actions, based on the findings of the survey. Total station full information free notes pdf download. Chapter 3 surveying equipment, measurements and errors. Ali, comparison among height observation of gps, total station and level and their. Surveying instruments operators manual class 1 led. Total station and its applications in surveying gis.
The term recycled plastic lumber rpl may also be applied to this product category, as the most common material used in the manufacture of plastic lumber,highdensity polyethylene hdpe, is obtained from the recycling of postconsumer waste such as milk jugs and detergent bottles read this. Understand electronic distance measurement edm principles define rectangular vs polar coordinate system measurements defin e how total station works, need of ts orientation. The set2 is a tacheometer, a device which can rapidly measure distance by optical means. Leica industrial laser trackers, theodolites and laser stations provide highaccuracy probing, scanning and measurement for largevolume industrial applications. Mining total stations are the primary survey instrument used in mining surveying. Error sources in total station in surveying the constructor.1237 1492 1223 1349 994 34 1140 877 367 1417 1535 678 753 844 570 552 660 1356 1336 86 1286 1497 94 658 429 546 194 1448 372 1060 1616 796 1125 371 587 1398 910 756 406 366 441 317 39 348 469 936 465